在PHP中如何导入导出Excel的方法

2012-6-27 13:28:59 来源:网络转载 浏览:500
最近因项目需要,需要开发一个PHP模块,把系统中的一些数据导出成Excel,修改后再将Excel导入到系统里面,下面介绍几种在PHP中如何导入导出Excel的方法。
最近因项目需要,需要开发一个模块,把系统中的一些数据导出成Excel,修改后再导回系统。就趁机对这个研究了一番,下面进行一些总结。
基本上导出的文件分为两种:
1:类Excel格式,这个其实不是传统意义上的Excel文件,只是因为Excel的兼容能力强,能够正确打开而已。修改这种文件后再保存,通常会提示你是否要转换成Excel文件。
优点:简单。
缺点:难以生成格式,如果用来导入需要自己分别编写相应的程序。
2:Excel格式,与类Excel相对应,这种方法生成的文件更接近于真正的Excel格式。

如果导出中文时出现乱码,可以尝试将字符串转换成gb2312,例如下面就把$yourStr从utf-8转换成了gb2312:
$yourStr = mb_convert_encoding("gb2312", "UTF-8", $yourStr);

下面详细列举几种方法。
一、PHP导出Excel

1:第一推荐无比风骚的PHPExcel,官方网站: http://www.codeplex.com/PHPExcel
导入导出都成,可以导出office2007格式,同时兼容2003。
下载下来的包中有文档和例子,大家可以自行研究。
抄段例子出来:
<?php
/**
* PHPExcel
*
* Copyright (C) 2006 - 2007 PHPExcel
*
* This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
* modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
* License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
* version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
* Lesser General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
* License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
* Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
*
* @category PHPExcel
* @package PHPExcel
* @copyright Copyright (c) 2006 - 2007 PHPExcel ( http://www.codeplex.com/PHPExcel)
* @license http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl.txt LGPL
* @version 1.5.0, 2007-10-23
*/

/** Error reporting */
error_reporting(E_ALL);

/** Include path **/
set_include_path(get_include_path() . PATH_SEPARATOR . '../Classes/');

/** PHPExcel */
include 'PHPExcel.php';

/** PHPExcel_Writer_Excel2007 */
include 'PHPExcel/Writer/Excel2007.php';

// Create new PHPExcel object
echo date('H:i:s') . " Create new PHPExcel object\n";
$objPHPExcel = new PHPExcel();

// Set properties
echo date('H:i:s') . " Set properties\n";
$objPHPExcel->getProperties()->setCreator("Maarten Balliauw");
$objPHPExcel->getProperties()->setLastModifiedBy("Maarten Balliauw");
$objPHPExcel->getProperties()->setTitle("Office 2007 XLSX Test Document");
$objPHPExcel->getProperties()->setSubject("Office 2007 XLSX Test Document");
$objPHPExcel->getProperties()->setDescrīption("Test document for Office 2007 XLSX, generated using PHP classes.");
$objPHPExcel->getProperties()->setKeywords("office 2007 openxml php");
$objPHPExcel->getProperties()->setCategory("Test result file");


// Add some data
echo date('H:i:s') . " Add some data\n";
$objPHPExcel->setActiveSheetIndex(0);
$objPHPExcel->getActiveSheet()->setCellValue('A1', 'Hello');
$objPHPExcel->getActiveSheet()->setCellValue('B2', 'world!');
$objPHPExcel->getActiveSheet()->setCellValue('C1', 'Hello');
$objPHPExcel->getActiveSheet()->setCellValue('D2', 'world!');

// Rename sheet
echo date('H:i:s') . " Rename sheet\n";
$objPHPExcel->getActiveSheet()->setTitle('Simple');


// Set active sheet index to the first sheet, so Excel opens this as the first sheet
$objPHPExcel->setActiveSheetIndex(0);


// Save Excel 2007 file
echo date('H:i:s') . " Write to Excel2007 format\n";
$objWriter = new PHPExcel_Writer_Excel2007($objPHPExcel);
$objWriter->save(str_replace('.php', '.xlsx', __FILE__));

// Echo done
echo date('H:i:s') . " Done writing file.\r\n";


2、使用pear的Spreadsheet_Excel_Writer类
下载地址: http://pear.php.net/package/Spreadsheet_Excel_Writer
此类依赖于OLE,下载地址:http://pear.php.net/package/OLE
需要注意的是导出的Excel文件格式比较老,修改后保存会提示是否转换成更新的格式。
不过可以设定格式,很强大。
<?php
require_once 'Spreadsheet/Excel/Writer.php';

// Creating a workbook
$workbook = new Spreadsheet_Excel_Writer();

// sending HTTP headers
$workbook->send('test.xls');

// Creating a worksheet
$worksheet =& $workbook->addWorksheet('My first worksheet');

// The actual data
$worksheet->write(0, 0, 'Name');
$worksheet->write(0, 1, 'Age');
$worksheet->write(1, 0, 'John Smith');
$worksheet->write(1, 1, 30);
$worksheet->write(2, 0, 'Johann Schmidt');
$worksheet->write(2, 1, 31);
$worksheet->write(3, 0, 'Juan Herrera');
$worksheet->write(3, 1, 32);

// Let's send the file
$workbook->close();
?>

3:利用smarty,生成符合Excel规范的XML或HTML文件
支持格式,非常完美的导出方案。不过导出来的的本质上还是XML文件,如果用来导入就需要另外处理了。
详细内容请见rardge大侠的帖子:http://bbs.chinaunix.net/viewthread.php?tid=745757

需要注意的是如果导出的表格行数不确定时,最好在模板中把"ss:ExpandedColumnCount="5" ss:ExpandedRowCount="21""之类的东西删掉。

4、利用pack函数打印出模拟Excel格式的断句符号,这种更接近于Excel标准格式,用office2003修改后保存,还不会弹出提示,推荐用这种方法。
缺点是无格式。
<?php
// Send Header
header("Pragma: public");
header("Expires: 0");
header("Cache-Control: must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0");
header("Content-Type: application/force-download");
header("Content-Type: application/octet-stream");
header("Content-Type: application/download");;
header("Content-Disposition: attachment;filename=test.xls ");
header("Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary ");
// XLS Data Cell

xlsBOF();
xlsWriteLabel(1,0,"My excel line one");
xlsWriteLabel(2,0,"My excel line two : ");
xlsWriteLabel(2,1,"Hello everybody");

xlsEOF();

function xlsBOF() {
echo pack("ssssss", 0x809, 0x8, 0x0, 0x10, 0x0, 0x0);
return;
}
function xlsEOF() {
echo pack("ss", 0x0A, 0x00);
return;
}
function xlsWriteNumber($Row, $Col, $Value) {
echo pack("sssss", 0x203, 14, $Row, $Col, 0x0);
echo pack("d", $Value);
return;
}
function xlsWriteLabel($Row, $Col, $Value ) {
$L = strlen($Value);
echo pack("ssssss", 0x204, 8 + $L, $Row, $Col, 0x0, $L);
echo $Value;
return;
}
?>
不过笔者在64位linux系统中使用时失败了,断句符号全部变成了乱码。

5、使用制表符、换行符的方法
制表符"\t"用户分割同一行中的列,换行符"\t\n"可以开启下一行。
<?php
header("Content-Type: application/vnd.ms-execl");
header("Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=myExcel.xls");
header("Pragma: no-cache");
header("Expires: 0");
/*first line*/
echo "hello"."\t";
echo "world"."\t";
echo "\t\n";

/*start of second line*/
echo "this is second line"."\t";
echo "Hi,pretty girl"."\t";
echo "\t\n";
?>

6、使用com
如果你的PHP可以开启com模块,就可以用它来导出Excel文件
<?PHP
$filename = "c:/spreadhseet/test.xls";
$sheet1 = 1;
$sheet2 = "sheet2";
$excel_app = new COM("Excel.application") or Die ("Did not connect");
print "Application name: {$excel_app->Application->value}\n" ;
print "Loaded version: {$excel_app->Application->version}\n";
$Workbook = $excel_app->Workbooks->Open("$filename") or Die("Did not open $filename $Workbook");
$Worksheet = $Workbook->Worksheets($sheet1);
$Worksheet->activate;
$excel_cell = $Worksheet->Range("C4");
$excel_cell->activate;
$excel_result = $excel_cell->value;
print "$excel_result\n";
$Worksheet = $Workbook->Worksheets($sheet2);
$Worksheet->activate;
$excel_cell = $Worksheet->Range("C4");
$excel_cell->activate;
$excel_result = $excel_cell->value;
print "$excel_result\n";
#To close all instances of excel:
$Workbook->Close;
unset($Worksheet);
unset($Workbook);
$excel_app->Workbooks->Close();
$excel_app->Quit();
unset($excel_app);
?>
一个更好的例子: http://blog.chinaunix.net/u/16928/showart_387171.html

一、PHP导入Excel

1:还是用PHPExcel,官方网站: http://www.codeplex.com/PHPExcel。

2:使用PHP-ExcelReader,下载地址: http://sourceforge.net/projects/phpexcelreader
举例:
<?php
require_once 'Excel/reader.php';

// ExcelFile($filename, $encoding);
$data = new Spreadsheet_Excel_Reader();

// Set output Encoding.
$data->setOutputEncoding('utf8');

$data->read(' jxlrwtest.xls');


error_reporting(E_ALL ^ E_NOTICE);

for ($i = 1; $i <= $data->sheets[0]['numRows']; $i++) {
for ($j = 1; $j <= $data->sheets[0]['numCols']; $j++) {
echo "\"".$data->sheets[0]['cells'][$i][$j]."\",";
}
echo "\n";
}

?>
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